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critical mass theory

6, Issue 3, 2010 10 Pages Posted: 12 Jun 2011 Last revised: 29 May 2012 Sources: Oliver, P.E. Critical mass, in nuclear physics, the minimum amount of a given fissile material necessary to achieve a self-sustaining fission chain reaction under stated conditions. It was an established concept in medicine, specifically epidemiology, since the 1920s, as it helped to explain the spread of illnesses. Critical Mass Theory Revisited: The Behavior and Success of Token Women in State Legislatures - Volume 1 Issue 1 - Kathleen A. Bratton By their definition, then, "critical mass" is the small segment of a societal system that does the work or action required to achieve the common good. Fourth, it is very helpful to have highly sought-after individuals to act as early adopters, as their use acts as incentive for later users. Critical Mass in Inter-Organizational Platforms. In his papers, Schelling quotes the well-known "The Market for Lemons: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism" paper written in 1970 by George Akerlof. The theory of a “critical mass” seems to live a life of its own, in spite of reservations expressed by researchers, my own reservations included. David, R., Aubert, B.A., Bernard, J-G., & Luczak-Roesch, M. (2020). 10-12 August, 2020. Perceived critical mass grew amongst the student population, by the end of 2004 more than a million students had signed up, continuing to when Facebook opened the platform to high-school and university students worldwide in 2005, then eventually launching to the public in 2006. Finally, Markus posits that interventions, both monetarily and otherwise, by governments, businesses, or groups of individuals will help a media reach its critical mass and achieve universal access. addition to employing critical mass theory, we build on research on minority and majority influence on group decision-making as well as tokenism theories. And, as Badiou concludes from this: “the goal of critical theory is always to know, to have an understanding (to have a new form of understanding), of what is impossible to know”. Evans, D. S., & Schmalensee, R. (2010). Chain Reaction: Critical Theory Needs Critical Mass—Contradiction, Crisis and the Value-Form, Mike Neary By SERRC on September 16, 2019 • ( 0). Key Texts. is beneficial, especially if users are dispersed over a larger area, thus necessitating interactivity via media. "Heterogeneity" is also important to the achievement of a common good. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: What makes a big demonstration? Tag: Alexander Bain, collection action, critical mass, critical mass theory, early adopters, innovators, model rasional pemilihan, social information processing, social presence theory, tipping point, videophone. DEFINING CRITICAL MASS. With other non-interactive innovations, the dependence on other users was generally sequential, meaning that the early adopters influenced the later adopters to use the innovation. [13] This number has been placed at 30%, before women are able to make a substantial difference in politics. Akerlof, George A. The theory of a “critical mass” seems to live a life of its own, in spite of reservations expressed by researchers, my own reservations included. When women reached 20% … Sometimes the critical Women bring a collaborative leadership style that benefits boardroom dynamics by increasing the amount It had existed in various forms and for various uses, but with more advancements in the technology of faxes, including the use of existing phone lines to transmit information, coupled with falling prices in both machines and cost per fax, the fax machine reached a critical mass in 1987, when "Americans began to assume that 'everybody else' had a fax machine". There are many factors that can hasten or slow the development of a critical mass, such as whether social leaders are quick or slow to adopt and whet… Critical theory, thus, is tantamount to creating a new possibility to think the Real by modifying the separation between what is possible and what is impossible. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES • 12 Februari 2014 • 1 Komentar. This article will examine 1)the definition of critical mass, 2) how to achieve critical mass, 3) signs that your company may be ready for critical mass, 4) some important components of critical mass 5) business models where critical mass is vital and 6) critical mass in social media websites. We can especially feel and see the response to newer technology nowadays. Critical theory, thus, is tantamount to creating a new possibility to think the Real by modifying the separation between what is possible and what is impossible. [8] Similarly, Granovetter cited the Nash Equilibrium game in his papers. As analogy or metaphor the term has diffused into popular culture and social science and is widely used to refer to any context in which things change after a certain number of people get together or enter a setting. Print. This reaction becomes self-sustaining when the number of neutrons produced by fission equals or exceeds the number of neutrons absorbed by splitting nuclei plus the number that escape into the surroundings. "Notes for a History of the Critical Mass Model." Thus, the increase of adopters and quickness to reach critical mass can therefore be faster and more intense with interactive media, as can the rate at which previous users discontinue their use. Krauth, Brian. Variations (heterogeneity) in the value individuals put on a common good or the effort and resources people give is beneficial, because if certain people stand to gain more, they are willing to give or pay more. Print. However, with interactive media, the interdependence was reciprocal, meaning both users influenced each other. Critical mass can refer to either the raw number of customers or the company’s market share. Earned income does not produce critical mass … critical mass is strictly a function of assets. Home › Critical Replies › Chain Reaction: Critical Theory Needs Critical Mass—Contradiction, Crisis and the Value-Form, Mike Neary. Pdf from Norges Handelshøyskole (NHH), the Norwegian School of Economics. Reaching a sustainable population is dependent on the collective use of the technology rather than the individual’s use. Harris THEN AND NOW CRITICAL THEORIES OF MASS MEDIA [27] By obtaining critical mass in each relative population before advancing to the next audience, Facebook developed enough saturation to become self-sustaining. Women Directors Make a Difference We find that women do make a difference in the boardroom. Much of this reasoning has to do with individual interests trumping that which is best for the collective whole, which may not be obvious at the time. [26] Facebook promoted the innovation to groups that are likely to adopt in mass. Collective action usually depends on a "critical mass" that behaves differently from typical group members. I want to explore some mechanisms that have been tied to mass strategic adoption of technology, also known as critical mass network theory, within a global crypto and fiat economy to … On the other hand, the function can be accelerating, where the more resources that are used the bigger the payback. Harris THEN AND NOW CRITICAL THEORIES OF MASS MEDIA A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.The critical mass of a fissionable material depends upon its nuclear properties (specifically, its nuclear fission cross-section), density, shape, enrichment, purity, temperature, and surroundings.The concept is important in nuclear weapon design Critical mass theory in gender politics and collective political action is defined as the critical number of personnel needed to affect policy and make a change not as the token but as an influential body. Critical theory, Marxist-inspired movement in social and political philosophy originally associated with the work of the Frankfurt School.Drawing particularly on the thought of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud, critical theorists maintain that a primary goal of philosophy is to understand and to help overcome the social structures through which people are dominated and oppressed. Another is social stigma, or the possibility of public advocacy due to such a factor. The authors wish to thank Erik Olin Wright, Elizabeth Thomson, John Lemke, and the The term critical mass is borrowed from nuclear physics and in that field, it refers to the amount of a substance needed to sustain a chain reaction. Critical Theories of Mass Media is a key text for students of cultural studies, communications and media studies, and sociology. Critical Theories of Mass Media is a key text for students of cultural studies, communications and media studies, and sociology. The concept of critical mass was originally created by game theorist Thomas Schelling and sociologist Mark Granovetter to explain the actions and behaviors of a wide range of people and phenomenon. New York: Norton, 1978. Materials that can sustain a nuclear fission chain reaction is said to be fissile or fissionable.This reaction becomes self-sustaining when the number of neutrons produced by fission equals or exceeds the number of neutrons absorbed by splitting nuclei plus the number that escape into the surroundings. Social movement activists and scholars often use “critical mass” in a loose metaphorical way to refer to an initial group of protesters or actors that is big enough to accomplish social change. Mass media and the mass culture they promote have become a focus for critical theory. The adoption of the platform creates the effects of positive externalities whereby each additional user provides additional perceived benefits to previous and potential adopters. Americas Conference of Information Systems (AMCIS), Salt Lake City, UT. Abstract. It can also be driven by financial motives, such as greed in a rising house market. Schelling, Thomas C. "On the Ecology of Micromotives," The Public Interest, No. Critical Mass Theory and Women's Political Representation @inproceedings{Childs2008CriticalMT, title={Critical Mass Theory and Women's Political Representation}, author={Sarah J Childs and Mona Lena Krook}, year={2008} } Revolutionary theory is a tool for transformation, but to make it mass-based, popular education is necessary. & Marwell, G. (1988). Recent technology research in platform ecosystems shows that apart from the quantitative notion of a “sufficient number” critical mass is also influenced by qualitative properties such as such as reputation, interests, commitments, capabilities, goals, consensuses, and decisions, all of which are crucial in determining whether reciprocal behavior can be started to achieve sustainability to a commitment such as an idea, new technology, or innovation.[1][2]. (2005) ‘Critical Mass Theory Revisited: The Behavior and Success of Token Women in State Legislatures’, Politics and Gender, 1 (1), 97 – 125. Jan Ll. Felix Weil’s father, Herman, made his fortune by exporting grain from Argentina to Europe. Paul A. Taylor is Senior Lecturer in Communications Theory, University of Leeds, UK. In M. Lynne Markus' essay in Communication Research entitled "Toward a 'Critical Mass' Theory of Interactive Media",[22] several propositions are made that try to predict under what circumstances interactive media is most likely to achieve critical mass and reach universal access, a "common good" using Oliver, et al. Its size depends on several factors, including the kind of fissile material used, its concentration and purity, and the Paul A. Taylor and Jan Ll. In the lecture on critical media theory I present a classical text in critical theory, Adorno och The point at which critical mass is achieved is sometimes referred to as a threshold within the threshold model of statistical modeling. For many people, this process is driven by the fear of rejection. Critical mass theory is delineated as a better approach for comprehending the conditions that encourage individuals to utilize their personal goods, thus engendering collective action; the approach’s central tenet that general principles of collective action do not exist is highlighted. This article extends the formal theory of collective action to define and specify the role of the critical mass. A sphere gives the smallest M c because a sphere mini-mizes the ratio of surface area to volume for a solid. Critical theory is the school of thought that stresses the reflective assessments and critiques of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. The critical-mass theory, therefore, may actually validate racial stereotypes and perpetuate notions of racial inadequacy. This theory argues that when a committed minority reaches a critical group size—commonly referred to as a “critical mass”—the social system crosses a tipping point. I f it seems like the structures that enable sexism are exploding, that’s because they scientifically are, according to the theory of critical mass. Studies show critical mass can be reached more quickly when you have critical actors, or influential female leaders who can determine outcomes on their own. critical mass synonyms, critical mass pronunciation, critical mass translation, English dictionary definition of critical mass. The more people that use it, the more beneficial it will be, thus creating a type of snowball effect, and conversely, if users begin to stop using the innovation, the innovation loses utility, thus pushing more users to discontinue their use.[22]. Logic of collective action and common good. These examples only outline the simplest ideal cases: "Technology acceptance model (TAM) and social media usage: an empirical study on Facebook", "DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONS. Kathleen Bratton goes so far as to say that women, in legislatures where they m… [14][15] However, other research suggests lower numbers of women working together in legislature can also affect political change. [23], Critical mass is fundamental for social media sites to maintain a significant userbase. In December, leaked documents showed that a San Diego public school district was requiring teachers to attend “white privilege” trainings where they were expected to recognize their roles in perpetuating racism, a hallmark of critical race theory. This concept is similar to the mental model of activation energy. Facebook provides a good illustration of critical mass. Critical mass theory in gender politics and collective political action is defined as the critical number of personnel needed to affect policy and make a change not as the token but as an influential body. In simpler terms, it’s the amount of reactant necessary for something to happen and to keep happening. Critical mass is a concept used in a variety of contexts, including physics, group dynamics, politics, public opinion, and technology. c(henceforth just “critical mass”) is the minimum mass of fissile material that is needed for that chain reaction. In nuclear physics, the minimum amount of fissile material needed to create a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction is known as critical mass. [7] Everett Rogers later cites them both in his important work Diffusion of Innovations, in which critical mass plays an important role. [18] Others argue that we should look more closely at parliamentary and electoral systems instead of critical mass. Plainly stated, the Land of Critical Mass is a place in which individuals enjoy their own personal financial nirvana. threshold critical mass, neutron production by fission within a volume just balances neutron loss through the volume’s surface, and the number density of neutrons is constant in time. Critical mass and the theories behind it help us to understand aspects of humans as they act and interact in a larger social setting. The mass where criticality occurs may be changed by modifying certain attributes such as fuel, shape, temperature, density and the installation of a neutron-reflective substance. “Critical mass theory” in social movements refers loosely to any formal theory about how interdependent decisions accumulate into collective action or more narrowly to work in the tradition of Marwell and Oliver (1993). Critical researchers link mass media and mass culture to … [25] The principle behind the strategy is that at each time Facebook enlarged the size of the community, the saturation never drops below the critical mass, reaching the desired diffusion effect discussed in Rogers, Diffusion of innovations. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Once the tipping point is reached, the actions of a minority group trigger a cascade of behavior change that rapidly increases the acceptance of a minority view ( 12 – 14 ). Critical and Traditional Theory (Horkheimer) Dialectic of the Enlightenment (Adorno and Horkheimer) Knowledge and Human Interests (Habermas) The Structural … Critical researchers link mass media and mass culture to a … 2003. The "Production Function" is the correlation between resources, or what individuals give in an effort to achieve public good, and the achievement of that good. In nuclear physics, critical mass is defined as the minimum amount of a fissile material required to create a self-sustaining fission reaction. Web. Small business that aim to get bigger have to be able to reach the critical mass in order to get bigger. American Sociological Review 53(1), 1-8. Other social factors that are important include the size, inter-dependencies and level of communication in a society or one of its subcultures. The exact critical mass depends on the nuclear properties of a material, its density, its shape, and other factors. The Market for "lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. In debates about women's political representation, the importance of a certain number or percentage of women in political assemblies is often stressed. [4] He did use the term "critical density" with regard to pollution in his "On the Ecology of Micromotives". One proposition states that such media's existence is all or nothing, where in if universal access is not achieved, then, eventually, use will discontinue. If the term critical mass sounds like it came straight out of a science fiction novel, you’d be right. This is due to the fact that interactive media have high network effect,[21] where in the value and utility of a good or service increases the more users it has. Some come through studying social and political theory in the academy. The concept was first established (although not explicitly named) in Schelling's essay about racial segregation in neighborhoods, published in 1971 in the Journal of Mathematical Sociology,[3] and later refined in his book, Micromotives and Macrobehavior, published in 1978. Differentiation between earned income and assets is a fundamental lesson to learn when thinking in terms of critical mass. “Critical mass theory” in social movements refers loosely to any formal theory about how interdependent decisions accumulate into collective action or more narrowly to work in the tradition of Marwell and Oliver (1993). Critical Theory in the narrow sense designates several generations of German philosophers and social theorists in the Western European Marxist tradition known as the Frankfurt School. The paradox of group size in collective action: A theory of the critical mass. In this article we argue that the concept of the critical mass deserves a central place in collective action theory. Finally, Herbert A. Simon's essay, "Bandwagon and underdog effects and the possibility of election predictions", published in 1954 in Public Opinion Quarterly,[9] has been cited as a predecessor to the concept we now know as critical mass. Print. “Bare” The smallest mass of a fissionable material that will sustain a nuclear chain reaction at a constant level. The idea is that, in complex systems, moving beyond a threshold can suddenly unleash powerful, self-sustaining change. Critical theory, Marxist-inspired movement in social and political philosophy originally associated with the work of the Frankfurt School. Determining Critical Mass. I am eager to know how researchers of mass communication would apply critical theory to help answer these questions: why do people use social networking sites? Jan Ll. 367", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Critical_mass_(sociodynamics)&oldid=992850818, Pages using citations with accessdate and no URL, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 12:59. I. Interdependence, Group Heterogeneity, and the Production of Collective ~ction' Pamela Oliver and Gerald Marwell University of Wisconsin-Madison Ruy Teixeira University of Notre Dame Collective action usually depends on a "critical mass" that behaves differently from typical group members. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003. II. Browse other articles of this reference work: The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. By Everett M. Rogers. Based on critical mass theory and with the help of a hand-collected panel dataset of 151 listed German firms for the years 2000–2005, we explore whether the link between gender diversity and firm performance follows a U-shape. Are used the bigger the payback `` technology acceptance model ( TAM ) and social media:. It is used to denote a crucial stage in a larger area, thus necessitating via. Both users influenced each other before been treated as a general and a specific meaning Maces. 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