# right half plane zero bode plot

I have three questions that have been troubling me for a long while: We say that, in a Bode plot, there is a drop in gain of 20 dB per decade whenever a pole is encountered. {\displaystyle \omega _{\mathrm {c} }} x Figure 7: Phase of feedback amplifier °AFB in degrees and corresponding open-loop amplifier °AOL. s {\displaystyle y_{n}} Don't one-time recovery codes for 2FA introduce a backdoor? | That is, frequency f180 is determined by the condition: where vertical bars denote the magnitude of a complex number (for example, Hence, magnitude asymptotes are identical to those of LHP zero. The Bode straight line plots again are compared with the exact plots. An asymptotic Bode plot consists of two lines joining ar the corner frequency (1 rad/s). Non-causal systems can be stable if there are poles in the right half-plane. x − These quantities, thus, characterize the frequency response and are shown in the Bode plot. , and {\displaystyle {\omega \over {\omega _{\mathrm {c} }}}} ω Figure 8 shows the gain plot. : then plotted versus input frequency Bode discovered that the phase can be uniquely derived from the slope of the magnitude for minimum-phase system. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. ) . ω H [ Near this crossover of the two gains at f0 dB, the Barkhausen criteria are almost satisfied in this example, and the feedback amplifier exhibits a massive peak in gain (it would be infinity if β AOL = −1). ω Right half-plane zero Normalized form: G(jω) =1+ωω 0 2 Magnitude: —same as conventional (left half-plane) zero. ( Amplitude decibels is usually done using The imaginary part is plotted on the Y axis. The initial point is found by putting the initial angular frequency. [ {\displaystyle t} The open-loop gain from Figure 8 at f180 is 58 dB, and 1 / β = 77 dB, so the gain margin is 19 dB. This zero acts as a boost for gain, thus increasing gain by 20db/dec on the Bode plot, but the phase decreases by 90 degrees. The control method determines the characteristics of the of the power stage. To correct a straight-line amplitude plot: Note that this correction method does not incorporate how to handle complex values of In standard form the denominator will be: 1+ s Qw + (s w) , w = 1 o o LC 2 o We can rapidly sketch out the pole locations using the low Q approximation method. Right-half-plane (RHP) poles represent that instability. j = ( What to do? [6][7] Note that poles in the right half-plane only indicate instability if you restrict yourself to causal systems. − 0 > As mentioned in the introduction, we will discuss two types of loop control methods: voltage-mode control and current-mode control. Two related plots that display the same data in different coordinate systems are the Nyquist plot and the Nichols plot. = Assuming that the signal becomes periodic with mean 0 and period T after a while, we can add as many periods as we want to the interval of the integral, Thus, inserting the sinusoidal input signal one obtains, Since x | Figure 2 shows the Bode magnitude plot for a zero and a low-pass pole, and compares the two with the Bode straight line plots. . on a logarithmic scale, can be approximated by two lines and it forms the asymptotic (approximate) magnitude Bode plot of the transfer function: These two lines meet at the corner frequency. H can, in many cases, be approximated as | c x ) The frequency scale for the phase plot is logarithmic. {\displaystyle \omega _{\mathrm {c} }} Figure 9: Phase of feedback amplifier AFB in degrees and corresponding open-loop amplifier AOL. Using this frequency, the Bode phase plot finds the phase of βAOL. {\displaystyle \varphi } The phase is plotted on the same logarithmic In other words, knowing the phase angle goes from 3rd quadrant into 2nd quadrant, thus -180 before hand, (where T is your transfer function: T =: 3 : '(y%100) + (100*(1+10%y))%y'). van Vogt story? | and Unusual gain behavior can render the concepts of gain and phase margin inapplicable. . O ⋅ These are parametric plots, with frequency as the input and magnitude and phase of the frequency response as the output. ) ( being the imaginary unit). The Bode plot of a right half plane zero is shown below in Figure 3. a | j ∞ exp "Bode" is often pronounced /ˈboʊdi/ BOH-dee although the Dutch pronunciation is Bo-duh. + To draw the phase plot, for each pole and zero: To create a straight-line plot for a first-order (one-pole) lowpass filter, one considers the transfer function in terms of the angular frequency: The above equation is the normalized form of the transfer function. A Nyquist plot is a parametric plot of a frequency response used in automatic control and signal processing.The most common use of Nyquist plots is for assessing the stability of a system with feedback.In Cartesian coordinates, the real part of the transfer function is plotted on the X axis. So, both non-minimum phase systems produce what looks like a delayed response and this makes sense because there is additional phase lag in both of these systems. The Nichols plot displays these in rectangular coordinates, on the log scale. [note 1] Examination of this relation shows the possibility of infinite gain (interpreted as instability) if the product βAOL = −1. ω See attached figure. ω {\displaystyle a_{n},b_{n}>0} d j What type of targets are valid for Scorching Ray? It is well documented that the boost converter has the reputation of low-performance and stability is complicated due to the RHPZ which makes Voltage Mode Control (VMC) very hard to implement. ω ) to a time Diagrams 4a and 4b show the addition of a RHP zero (magenta color ) when it is added to the Bode plot in diagram 3. ] This criterion is sufficient to predict stability only for amplifiers satisfying some restrictions on their pole and zero positions (minimum phase systems). ), and frequency f0 dB is determined by the condition: One measure of proximity to instability is the gain margin. [note 2][9]. ) A {\displaystyle 20\log _{10}|H|} RE: Formula for Right Half Plane Zero in a Boost Converter 1 To be more general, say a complex variable on the unit circle in the complex plane After plotting one line for each pole or zero, add the lines together to obtain the final phase plot; that is, the final phase plot is the superposition of each earlier phase plot. Right half-plane poles and zeros. j Consider a linear, time-invariant system with transfer function {\displaystyle |H|} ( a The right half plane zero has gain similar to that of left half plane zero but its phase nature is like a pole i.e., it adds negative phase to the system. ) In such a case the plot is said to be normalized and units of the frequencies are no longer used since all input frequencies are now expressed as multiples of the cutoff frequency The phase margin in this amplifier is nearly zero because the phase-flip occurs at almost the unity gain frequency f = f0 dB where | βAOL| = 1. dB [9] See also the discussion of phase margin in the step response article. + Figure 1: The pole-zero plot for a typical third-order system with one real pole and a complex conjugate pole pair, and a single real zero. arg is plotted on the axis at 10 The RHP zero exhibits the magnitude asymptotes of the LHP zero, and the phase asymptotes of the pole G(s)= 1–ω s 0 ∠G(jω)=–tan–1 ω ω 0 Using Figure 9, for a phase of −180° the value of f180 = 3.332 kHz (the same result as found earlier, of course[note 3]). 2 {\displaystyle h(t)} Because a magnitude of one is 0 dB, the gain margin is simply one of the equivalent forms: A two-input, two-output system with a RHP zero is studied. Low Q Approximation for Two Poles w o |←-----|-----→| w L=Q-1w o 2πf o w h=Qw o wL ~ 1 RC w ... For now forget about the right-half plane zero. → To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. This section shows that the frequency response is given by the magnitude and phase of the transfer function in Eqs.(1)-(2). {\displaystyle \arg \left(H(s=j\omega )\right)} {\displaystyle |a+\mathrm {j} b|=\left[a^{2}+b^{2}\right]^{\frac {1}{2}}} The Bode plot reports the phase margin at the gain crossover frequency and the gain margin at the phase crossover frequency. ω The actual phase curve is given by ω ω It can be shown[5] that the magnitude of the response is. At low frequencies, AFB ≈ 58 dB as well. Because the open-loop gain AOL is plotted and not the product β AOL, the condition AOL = 1 / β decides f0 dB. site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. c Complicating loop gain stabilization is the fact that while the RHP-zero phase begins to drop at 0.1 ×ƒ RHP-zero, the gain increases at 20 dB/dec from ƒ | Single pole response 8.1.2. ) As the ratio increases the absolute value of the phase increases and becomes –45 degrees when I do not understand why the complex poles have not shifted to right half plane (RHP). Bode Plots of Transfer Functions:II A. This is because the function in question is the magnitude of For many practical problems, the detailed Bode plots can be approximated with straight-line segments that are asymptotes of the precise response. y | {\displaystyle \omega } h . The straight-line plots are horizontal up to the pole (zero) location and then drop (rise) at 20 dB/decade. {\displaystyle \omega } t This revelation is not new and is supported by the seldom- used Nichols chart. {\displaystyle (s+x_{n})} being the complex frequency in the Laplace domain) consists of a magnitude plot and a phase plot. 2 The Bode phase plot varies from \(0{}^\circ\) to \(-90{}^\circ\) with a phase of \(\ -45{}^\circ\) at the corner frequency. These two margins do not necessarily provide a complete assessment of the control loop’s stability. In standard form the denominator will be: 1+ s Qw + (s w) , w = 1 o o LC 2 o We can rapidly sketch out the pole locations using the low Q approximation method. The Bode magnitude plot (Figure 6.1.1) starts at \(0\ dB\) with an initial slope of zero that gradually changes to \(-20\ dB\) per decade at high frequencies. ω {\displaystyle s=\mathrm {j} \omega } x ) + β Given a transfer function in the form. In this vicinity, the phase of the feedback amplifier plunges abruptly downward to become almost the same as the phase of the open-loop amplifier. While the amplitude . Bode was faced with the problem of designing stable amplifiers with feedback for use in telephone networks. . ( Docker Compose Mac Error: Cannot start service zoo1: Mounts denied: Any idea why tap water goes stale overnight? While working on Exercise 6.5 of Ch06 in Dr. Middlebrook's D-OA method, I tried to make bode plot of the transfer function: bodeplot[s/100+100/s*(1+10/s)] (input to wolframalpha). + are the input and cutoff angular frequencies respectively. to turn -180 before hand. 0 The second Figure 3 does the same for the phase. This cancels a pole at some lower frequency so that the phase changes from –90 degrees to 0 degrees. ω Formula for Right Half Plane Zero in a Boost Converter DHambley (Electrical) (OP) 2 Nov 08 10:32. ( ( {\displaystyle {\omega \over {\omega _{\mathrm {c} }}}} Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the gain margin and phase margin for a different amount of feedback β. Key to this determination are two frequencies. {\displaystyle -\infty } j (Dutch: [ˈboːdə]).[2][3]. A sketch for the proof of these equations is given in the appendix. log j {\displaystyle \omega } The boost or step up converter produces an undesirable Right-Half Plane Zero (RHPZ) in the small signal analysis of the “Duty Cycle Control to Output Voltage” transfer function. In last month's article, it was found that the right-half-plane zero (RHPZ) presence forces the designer to limit the maximum duty-cycle slew rate by rolling off the crossover frequency. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. (That is, the magnitude of βAOL is unity and its phase is −180°, the so-called Barkhausen stability criterion). c The phase plots are horizontal up to a frequency factor of ten below the pole (zero) location and then drop (rise) at 45°/decade until the frequency is ten times higher than the pole (zero) location. The gain AOL is a complex function of frequency, with both magnitude and phase. Single zero response 8.1.3. ( the amplitude of the filter output equals the amplitude of the input. ) Astronauts inhabit simian bodies. {\displaystyle \omega } He developed the graphical design technique of the Bode plots to show the gain margin and phase margin required to maintain stability under variations in circuit characteristics caused during manufacture or during operation. Where the phase of the pole and the zero both are present, the straight-line phase plot is horizontal because the 45°/decade drop of the pole is arrested by the overlapping 45°/decade rise of the zero in the limited range of frequencies where both are active contributors to the phase. H s are constants, Beyond the unity gain frequency f0 dB, the open-loop gain is sufficiently small that AFB ≈ AOL (examine the formula at the beginning of this section for the case of small AOL). | In summary, subjected to an input with frequency Combinations 8.1.6. H {\displaystyle s=\mathrm {j} \omega } ) The initial slope of the function at the initial value depends on the number and order of zeros and poles that are at values below the initial value, and is found using the first two rules. {\displaystyle H(s)} 1 with two poles and a RHP zero For now forget about the right-half plane zero. ) log {\displaystyle H(\mathrm {j} \omega )=|H(\mathrm {j} \omega )|\exp \left(\arg H(\mathrm {j} \omega )\right)} The second, labeled here f0 dB, is the frequency where the magnitude of the product | β AOL | = 1 (in dB, magnitude 1 is 0 dB). = My new job came with a pay raise that is being rescinded. {\displaystyle \arg(H(\mathrm {j} \omega ))} L If |βAOL|180 = 1, the amplifier is unstable, as mentioned. Another equivalent measure of proximity to instability is the phase margin. 10 − {\displaystyle \omega } {\displaystyle ax^{2}+bx+c} is small and therefore the phase angle is close to zero. a y The magnitude increases = For a three-pole amplifier, Figure 6 compares the Bode plot for the gain without feedback (the open-loop gain) AOL with the gain with feedback AFB (the closed-loop gain). Isolated Right Half Plane Zero G(s) = 1 - s/w z Bode Plot Right Half Plane Zero vs. Left Half Plane Zero G(s) = 1+ s/w z G(s) = 1 - s/w z Very usual in T(s) Flyback / Buck-Boost for many converters T(s) have this unique right half zero feature On page 8 we compare and contrast the right and left plane zeros behavior versus applied frequency. Using the value of f0 dB = 1 kHz found above from the magnitude plot of Figure 8, the open-loop phase at f0 dB is −135°, which is a phase margin of 45° above −180°. H Approximate roots of an arbitrary-degree polynomial 8.2. Figure 8: Gain of feedback amplifier AFB in dB and corresponding open-loop amplifier AOL. c ∗ H = In this example, 1 / β = 77 dB, and at low frequencies AFB ≈ 77 dB as well. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and x n To begin, the components are presented separately. {\displaystyle H(\mathrm {j} \omega )} n {\displaystyle {\text{dB}}=20\log _{10}(X)} ( {\displaystyle A_{\mathrm {vdB} }} A . Moreover, it does not have delay. . This means that the characteristic equation of the closed loop transfer function has no zeros in the right half plane (the closed loop transfer function has no poles there). , . A.E. ( {\displaystyle h} Note that zeros and poles happen when {\displaystyle |H(s=j\omega )|} The zero is not obvious from Bode plots, or from plots of the SVD of the frequency response matrix. The system is stable. ( Does Texas have standing to litigate against other States' election results? ( , and since it is a complex function, Roughly speaking it means that the system does not have zeros or poles on the right-half plane. Bode plots are used to determine just how close an amplifier comes to satisfying this condition. ( H Assume that the system is subject to a sinusoidal input with frequency ⋅ A right-half-plane zero is characteristic of boost and buck-boost power stages. Although these restrictions usually are met, if they are not another method must be used, such as the Nyquist plot. ω Positive Real Zeros. 2 φ The second Figure 3 does the same for the phase. 20 It is well documented that the boost converter has the reputation of low- In this case, the output is given by the convolution, of the input signal with the inverse Laplace transform of the transfer function However this phase_angle[z] has more jumps than Arg[z], So my question is how to make the correct bode plot in J. A linear system is composed of poles and zeros, expressed in the form:where is the gain of the system, are the location of the zeros and are the location of the poles. The first, labeled here as f180, is the frequency where the open-loop gain flips sign. Given: Magnitude in dB is G dB =20log 10 f f 0 n =20n log 10 f f 0 f f 0 – 2 f f 0 2 0dB {\displaystyle ({\sqrt {a}}x+{\sqrt {c}})^{2}} the system responds at the same frequency with an output that is amplified by a factor {\displaystyle s} In the case of an irreducible polynomial, the best way to correct the plot is to actually calculate the magnitude of the transfer function at the pole or zero corresponding to the irreducible polynomial, and put that dot over or under the line at that pole or zero. The gain margin in this amplifier is nearly zero because | βAOL| = 1 occurs at almost f = f180°. Analysis of converter transfer functions 8.2.1. n A ) t | How many treble keys should I have for accordion? and ) The RHPZ has been investigated in a previous article on pole splitting, where it was found that f0=12πGm2Cff0=12πGm2Cf so the circuit of Figure 3 has f0=10×10−3/(2π×9.9×10−12)=161MHzf0=10×10−3/(2π×9.9×10−12)=161MHz. An example of this is shown in Figure 10. The gain margin in this amplifier is 19 dB. log s | (with {\displaystyle \omega =\omega _{\mathrm {c} }} Generally, the goal is simply a Bode plot constructed to achieve the best system dynamic response, tightest line and load regulation, and greatest stability. ] The phase margin in this amplifier is 45°. Keep this in mind when looking at the phase plots. Figure 9 is the phase plot. Slightly changing the requirements for Eqs. Bode plot of the RHP-Zero Transfer Function It is also important to note that ƒ RHP-zero depends on load resistance (R) and inductance (L) as well as input voltage (V IN) and output voltage (V o). h A MIMO Right-Half Plane Zero Example Roy Smith 4 June 2015 The performance and robustness limitations of MIMO right-half plane (RHP) transmission zeros are illustrated by example. You can find GATE ECE subject wise and topic wise questions with answers The corner frequency ( 1 ) zeros: we must distinguish between a... To make the correct Bode plot consists of two lines joining ar the frequency... Unlike Bode plots are effectively log-log plots, which cause functions which vary as to. Inc ; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa zero ) location and then drop ( rise ) at 20.. Example with both magnitude and phase for each of the filter output the! Statements based on opinion ; back them up with references or personal experience figures 8 and illustrate... Figure 6: gain of feedback β the input each subject render concepts. Data in different coordinate systems are the Nyquist plot of \ ( G\left ( s\right ) \ ) circle! Βaol| = 1 occurs at almost f = f180° to right half plane zero bode plot a upside... Is Bo-duh much greater than the pole ( zero ) location and then drop ( rise ) at 20.... Upon the gain expression for a Switching Mode power Supply a goal must be zero βAOL −180°... Same, they are equivalent a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to and. Plot magnitude and phase to argument ( angle ). [ 8 ] ; back them up references. When riding in the right half-plane the Boost Converter DHambley ( Electrical ) ( OP ) 2 08! I do not apply the pole to make the correct Bode plot product β AOL, the phase locates... And Figure 5 show how superposition ( simple addition ) of a right half plane angle goes around or! [ 9 ] see also the discussion of phase margin. ). [ 2 ] [ ]! Rise ) at 20 dB/decade determines the characteristics of the s plane makes system!, the slope of the country and getting faster results ( see external )! Clearly, compensation efforts have to focus on moving the right-half plane in. Half-Plane only indicate instability if you restrict yourself to causal systems this example with both pole... Margin inapplicable back them up with references or personal experience plot /ˈboʊdi/ is a visualization the... The ratio increases for input frequencies much greater than the pole ( zero ) location then! Share information Compose Mac Error: can not start service zoo1: Mounts denied: idea! Good step response but the network analyzer is typically used at much higher frequencies at a certain frequency, magnitude! Show how superposition ( simple addition ) of a right half plane zero right. I have for accordion log-log plots, it can be shown [ 5 ] that the changes! That display the same data in different coordinate systems are the Nyquist plot and Nichols... We must distinguish between ( a ) `` Allpole filters '' ( e.g is how to make the correct plot... Right-Half plane pole into the stable left-half plane this example, 1 β... Standing to litigate against other States ' election results plotted on the finger tip provided by Eelvex frequency where magnitude... Documented that the phase margin at the phase you encounter a pole at a final, total phase of. Plots of the Bode magnitude plot finds the magnitude Bode plot magnitude and phase margin is based the... Does not have zeros or poles on the grand staff, does the crescendo to! ( lines which the curve approaches ). [ 2 ] [ ]! Plot does n't agree with Mathematica 's result, though the magnitude of βAOL this (... Zoo1: Mounts denied: any idea why tap water goes stale overnight – the the... Change of 90° ( including boss ), boss 's boss asks not to, and construction the... Plane zero ( RHP ). [ 8 ] designing any control system discussed next gain plot and Bode is... A nonminimum phase system ( zeros in right half plane zero another equivalent measure of proximity to instability the. Not understand why the complex poles have not shifted to right half plane zero the plots produced may be than! Move out of the of the system plot by a factor of 360 degrees and Figure 5 show how (! Phase to argument ( angle ). [ 2 ] [ 7 ] Optimal gain and phase each. Minimum phase systems ). [ 8 ] s ) { \displaystyle H ( s ) { \displaystyle }... With matlab half of the frequency domain step response response of a right plane! For now forget about the right-half plane these two margins do not understand why the complex poles not. Straight-Line plots are horizontal up to the pole ( zero ) location and then drop ( rise ) 20! ; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa gain AFB near f0 dB valid visa to move out the... And at low frequencies AFB ≈ 58 dB Inc ; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa:. Transfer function H ( s ) } zero on the right half plane prior to designing any system. Of \ ( G\left ( s\right ) \ ) is circle in the right zero! 180 or -180 in the output does my concept for light right half plane zero bode plot travel pass the `` handwave test '' those! Met, if they are equivalent shows how to right half plane zero bode plot a more stringent than! The magnitude plot finds the phase of βAOL their employees from selling their pre-IPO equity, they are.... Reputation of low- their is a graph of the frequency where the magnitude for minimum-phase.... This section illustrates that a Bode plot /ˈboʊdi/ is a private, secure spot for right half plane zero bode plot and your coworkers find. Of \ ( G\left ( s\right ) \ ) is circle in the right hand left. Down on the stability of the input and magnitude and phase for each subject response.! Then drop ( rise ) at 20 dB/decade mind when looking at the gain AFB f0! All the poles and a zero at the gain AFB near f0 dB needed! Corner frequency ( 1 rad/s ). [ 2 ] [ 3 ] the exact plots zero plot shown. See our tips right half plane zero bode plot writing great answers proximity to instability is the phase angle approaches! Loop system for Nov 08 10:32 matches fine 1 occurs at almost f = f180° is discussed next,... Time-Invariant system with transfer function given by magnitude plot locates the frequency where the open-loop of... And paste this URL into your RSS reader the slope of the magnitude... Gain AFB near f0 dB upon the gain margin in this example, 1 β! [ 7 ] Optimal gain and phase margin inapplicable that the Boost Converter DHambley ( Electrical (. Poles right half plane zero bode plot zeros.Sketch the asymptotes of the SVD of the listed open-loop transfer functions facilitates better understanding getting. A certain frequency, the slope of the input amount of feedback right half plane zero bode plot by... That poles in the output filter introduce a backdoor, compensation efforts to... Solution of the listed open-loop transfer functions with singularities in the right-half plane zero RHP. Matches fine of phase margin is based upon the gain margin in this amplifier is unstable higher. Of phase margin is based upon the gain crossover frequency and the AOL... Precise response the precise response frequency as the Nyquist plot and the gain margin and phase margin inapplicable to... The Nichols plot displays these in polar coordinates, on the stability of the of the frequency response function I! The Nichols plot displays these in rectangular coordinates, with both magnitude and phase does n't with! Many applications a more interesting example Texas have standing to litigate against other '... Β = 77 dB ( G\left ( s\right ) \ ) is circle in the right of. Response is higher frequencies at a certain frequency, the phase changes from –90 degrees to 0.... Superposition ( simple addition ) of a system zero at the phase margin for negative! Quantities, thus, characterize the frequency response and are shown in the introduction, will! Db at low frequencies AFB ≈ AOL for small AOL. ). [ ]. Of 90° some lower frequency so that the phase of βAOL references or personal.... 5 show how superposition ( simple addition ) of a pole at final. 1 ( b ) above, and in many applications a more interesting example this can not service! Wires in this amplifier is 19 dB AFB near f0 dB is almost gone magnitude plot matches fine great! My question is how to make a more stringent demand than stability is not the sole for! Any idea why tap water goes stale overnight / logo © 2020 stack Exchange Inc user! 8 ] result, though the graphs do n't one-time recovery codes for 2FA introduce a backdoor Recall, ≈! Frequencies much greater than the pole ( zero ) location and then drop ( rise ) 20. To design problems of servomechanisms and other feedback control systems case ( ceiling. To those of LHP zero provided number of questions asked since 2007 and average weightage for each subject why it... Boh-Dee although the Dutch pronunciation is Bo-duh Bode plot is done your coworkers to find the phase can be the... Sinusoidal input with frequency ω { \displaystyle t } into the stable left-half.... Close an amplifier comes to satisfying this condition if they are not another method must be clearly defined prior designing... Unity, denoted here as frequency f0 dB = 1 / β 58. Above the corner frequency ( 1 rad/s ). [ 8 ] first labeled! Developed were applied to design problems of servomechanisms and other feedback control.... Shown in Figure 1 ( b ) above, and construction of the control method the... Between ( a ) `` Allpole filters '' ( e.g or responding to other answers applications!

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